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时间:2021-01-24
本文摘要:globalisationhashelpedliftmillionsofpeopleinthedevelopingworldoutofpovertyandshoweredcheapgoodsonwesternconsumers .全球化正在发展中yetattheballotboxitisalsoblamedbythoseverysamepeopleforincreasinginequalityandsqueezinglivingstandards .但是,在投票箱前,全球化

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globalisationhashelpedliftmillionsofpeopleinthedevelopingworldoutofpovertyandshoweredcheapgoodsonwesternconsumers .全球化正在发展中yetattheballotboxitisalsoblamedbythoseverysamepeopleforincreasinginequalityandsqueezinglivingstandards .但是,在投票箱前,全球化的激烈pro-globalisationpoliticiansarefacinganoisybacklashineuropeandtheusaspopulistsdemandgreaterprotectionforthosewhofeelthesystee 是反对全球化的政治家面对反感,人民主义者拒绝增加维持现实体制的人。In their view,globalisation is an innocent fraud,tousejohnkennethgalbraith’s Phrase .他们显然在使用约翰肯尼斯卡布雷斯(JOS )。theuseconomistarguedinhis 2004 bookofthatnamethatsocietieswereoftensustainedbyhandyfictions, suchastheideathatcompanieswererunforthebenefitofshareholdersratherthanmanagers .这位美国经济学家是2004年的同名著作,认为社会总是接受方便的虚拟接受例如,他指出企业的经营是。

Politics,moneyandintellectualfashioncreatetheirownversionofthetruth,irrespective of reality .政治、金融、学术流动与现实无关,是各自的版本No one is especially at fault; whatisconvenienttobelieveisgreatlypreferred,Galbraith Wrote.Calbraith Wrote.Calbret写道,没有人聚集。人们讨厌那些方便而令人相信。thereisariskthattechnologicaldisruptionmaycometobeseenasthesecondgreatinnocentfraudofourtimes .风险认为技术变异是我们时代第二大有罪欺诈itishardtodisputethatpromisingnewtechnologies-like globalisation-canbringenormousbenefits .非常期待的新技术(与全球化相同)是一项巨大的存储器能源,transportandhealthcarearejustthreesectorsthatarelikelytobetransformedforthebetterinthenextfewyears .可以能源、交通和医疗butthesenewtechnologieswillalsothreatenmanyestablishedindustries,markets and jobs .但是,这种新技术并不威胁许多成熟期的行业、市场和低收入As with globalisation,thedigital revolution will bring generalise dgain but causelocalised Pain .与全球化一样,数字革命带来广泛的利益,但局部manynewtechnologieshaveunintended,and often adverse,consequences — or bite back .许多新技术出乎意料,经常带来有利的结果,即反咬。

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For example,thecombustionenginerevolutionisedtransport .例如,内燃机给交通带来了革命。butitalsodidterribledamagetotheenvironment .但是对环境也造成了相当大的伤害。asbestoswasoncehailedasamiraclematerial .石棉曾经被骗作为神秘的材料。butinthepast 20 yearswehavespentbillionsstrippingitfrombuildings .但是在过去的20年里,我们花了几十亿美元从建筑物上拆除。

thepotentialbitebackfromthelatestcropofnewtechnologies,suchasgeneeditingandartificialintelligence,is terrifying .最近的技术AS stePHE the British scientist,said last week,thecreationofpowerfulartificialintelligencewillbeeitherthebest。正如英国科学家斯蒂芬霍金最近说的,强大的人工智能的出现对人类来说是最坏还是最坏。How can we ensure good outcomes? Here are three ideas .怎么样才能保证好的结果呢? 这里有三个构想。First,theprivatesectorhastoembracethepublicsector,appreciatingthattheyhavecommonaims .首先,私营部门必须亲吻公共部门,大家都有联合的目标As Galbraith wrote, theinterdependenceofthetwosectorsisoftensogreatastorenderdistinctionsbetweenthemalmostmeaningless .像卡布雷特一样insurgentwestcoan anicbeliefthattheyarebetteringthelotofhumanityanddonotneedadultsupervision .敢做的西海岸theirchiefdemandtogovernmentis 3360 cle theyareincreasinglyvocalinpushingsuchviews,havingbecomeoneofthebiggestlobbyingforcesinwashington .他们在华盛顿构成下一次游说之一后In a conversation in Wired magazine, presidentbarackobamaarguedthattheadoptionofnewtechnologieswastooimportanttobelefttoprivatecompanies .在和《连线》 (Wired ) buthewarnedconfidenceincollectiveactionhadbeenchippedaway,Partlybecauseofideologyandrhetoric .但是,他对集体行动的信心受损,有部分原因ifwewantthevaluesofadiversecommunityrepresentedinthesebreakthroughtechnologies,thengovernmentfundinghastobeapartofit, hengovernmenthundinghastobeapartofit second,thepublicsectorneedstoretoolitselftounderstandmeetthechallengesposedbynewtechnos manyoftheregulatoryfunctionsofgovernment, introducedintheusintheearly 20th century是weredesignedtoprotecttheconsumerfrompredatorymonopolistsandfinancialcartels .美国在20世纪初butgovernmentinstitutionstodayneedtoprotectusascitizensasmuchasconsumers .但是,现在的政府体制必须把我们维持为公民和消费者的双重利益。

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thefrontlineofregulationconcernsissuesofprivacy,security,data use,employmentrightsandfreedomofexpression .监督管理的第一线涉及隐私weneedreinvigoratedpublicinstitutionstohelpguaranteethatnewtechnologiesareusedinbenignways .我们为公共机构再次吹响雄风,良性利用新技术wealsoneedenforcedlegalprotectionstoensurethatgovernmentitselfdoesnotabusethesetechnologies .我们也希望政府自己不要欺骗这些技术Third,wemayneedtorewritetheimplicitsocialcontractsthatgovernourdemocracies, redefiningwhatgoodsandservicesourgovernments economichistorianjoelmokyrarguesthatthepresentwaveoftechnologicalchangecouldcreater emayneedtofundamentation y rethink our political systems .经济史家乔尔莫奎尔主张,现在的技术变革浪潮可能会引起巨大的社会动乱,我们不要彻底反省政治体制 hesuggeststhenecessarytransformationcouldbeonaparwiththecreationofthegermanwelfarestateinthe 19 thcenturyorthenewdealofthe 193 0s ) changeonthatscalecoulddowithinputfromthebrilliantmindsofthetechsector .这种规模的变革需要科技行业优秀人才的集聚。As Wired,guest-edited by Mr Obama,Putit : Asknotwhatgovernmentcandoforsiliconvalley; askwhatsiliconvalleycandoforthegovernment .根据奥巴马兼任嘉宾主编的《连线》杂志,不要问政府能为硅谷做什么。我必须回答硅谷能为政府做的事。


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